7-1 Study Guides


Please define the following vocabulary words using your notes, textbook, or workbook:

1. Exploration: uncovering unknown regions of the world

2. Compass: uses a magnetized needle to determine direction by using the Earth’s magnetic poles

3. Representative assembly: set up by English settlers; elected representatives spoke for the people; modeled after Parliament

4. Colonization: the building of settlements in other lands

5. Charters: written agreements

6. Tenant farmers: people who paid rent and worked a fixed number of days each year for landowners; used in French colonies

7. Cartographer: mapmaker

8. Caravel: a light sailing ship with triangular sails

9. Circumnavigation: circling the globe 

10. Cash crops: one or two products grown for profit

11. Middle Passage: the journey from West Africa to the Americas taken by the slaves

12. Armada: a fleet of Spanish warships

13. Navigate: set a ship’s course over water

14 Conquistadors: Spanish conquerors

15. Immunity: the body’s ability to resist infections

16. Coureurs de bois: French fur trappers


Multiple choice or short answer:

  1. Which historical figure set up a naval school?

    Prince Henry the Navigator

  2. What new technologies were critical to exploration?

    Astrolabe, compass, maps, caravel, gunpowder

  3. The continents of the New World were named after which explorer?

    Amerigo Vespucci

  4. Who first circumnavigated the world?


  5. What was the Line of Demarcation? Who drew it? Why?

    Imaginary line dividing the East and the West; the Pope; to settle exploration dispute between Spain and Portugal

  6. Which empires was blocking the land route to Asia?

    The Ottoman Empire


  7. How did Pizarro conquer the Incas?

    Killed the emperor after taking a room of gold and two of silver

  8. What was the main occupation of the French settlements?

    Fur trading

  9.  What happened to sailors who did not receive enough Vitamin C?


  10. What type of government is modeled after Parliament and is still in practice today in the U.S?

    Representative assembly

  11.  What does latitude determine? Which invention determines latitude?

    Degrees from the equator; astrolabe

  12.  Who was looking for Asia and instead bumped into two new continents?

    Christopher Columbus

  13.  Who was the first sailor to see the southern tip of Africa? Vasco da Gama
  14.  Who conquered the Aztecs?


  15.  Why do people explore?

    God, gold, and glory

  16.  What was the first colony established in America by the English? What type of colony would this be? Jamestown; settler colony
  17. What effects did the slave trade have on the African nations?

    Increased was b) economic decline c) population decrease d) racism

  18. Which country started the African slave trade? Why did they feel they had a right to the land and the people on the continent of Africa?

Portugal, because of the Line of Demarcation

Paragraph questions:

What are the differences between each of the three types of colonies?

  • Trading post: French, economy based on trade, fish and furs, kind to Native Americans
  • Settler: settled to create a town, Puritans settled for religious reasons – not to make money, mostly in the Northeast, mostly British
  • Plantation colony: mostly in the South, grew cash crops (tobacco, cotton, etc.), settled to make money, British, Spanish created plantation colonies (sugarcane) in the Caribbean, used slave labor – both African and Native American

Who was the most important explorer, in your opinion? Why?

Why did Spain end up having the most land in the New World?

  • They arrived there first (Columbus).
  • They had the wealth and power needed to colonize the New World.
  • There were many Spanish explorers who could conquer land.